President: Tran Dai Quang
Tran Dai Quang was elected to the largely ceremonial post of president in January 2016.
Secretary-general of the Communist Party: Nguyen Phu Trong
The Communist Party holds the real power in Vietnam. It appointed Nguyen Phu Trong as its secretary-general in January 2011, replacing Nong Duc Manh, who retired after 10 years in the post.
He took over as Vietnam faced mounting economic problems, including rising inflation, a growing trade deficit and a weakening currency.
Born in 1944, he also previously served the Communist Party’s chief political theorist.
Nguyen Phu Trong is seen as a conservative.
Prime minister: Nguyen Xuan Phuc
Nguyen Xuan Phuc was elected to the post of prime minister by parliament in April 2016, after being picked to succeed outgoing leader Nguyen Tan Dung at the Communist Party’s congress in January.
Mr Phuc, 61, pledged to improve the business climate and crack down on corruption.
Unlike his charismatic predecessor, he is seen as a team player and a technocrat ready to stick to the party line.
The Communist Party has a strong grip on the media.
Media outlets and journalists risk sanctions for broaching sensitive topics and for criticising the government. But some press titles and online outlets do report on corruption in official circles.
There were 41 million internet users by the end of 2013, out of a population of 94 million (Internetworldstats.com)
1859-83 – France slowly colonises Indochina.
1940 – Japan takes control of Indochina.
1945 – Ho Chi Minh proclaims independence and establishes the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
1946 – French seek to regain control. Anti-French resistance war – or the First Indochina War – spreads across country.
1954 – Vietnam is partitioned between North and South. Conflict between the two rival states rages for the next two decades, in what is known as the Vietnam War or the Second Indochina War. The US is heavily involved in support of the South.
1975 – Southern cities fall one by one until communist forces seize Saigon.
1976 – Vietnam is reunified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Hundreds of thousands flee abroad, including many “boat people”.
1979 – Vietnam invades Cambodia and ousts the Khmer Rouge regime of Pol Pot.